The August 1996 issue of the IPM Practitioner contains a very nice summarization of commercial products recently available for crop protection against soil and foliar pathogens, and for biocontrol of herbivorous insects, structural insect pests, and weeds. The article focuses on products made from fungi, viruses and bacteria that are available for greenhouse, turf, field crop, orchard and garden use, but excludes Bt and nematodes, which will be covered in a later article.
Products for control of soil pathogens include the fungi Gliocladium virens and Trichoderma harzianum and various species of the bacteria Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Streptomyces. There are also formulations of fungi and bacteria used for foliar and postharvest protection of many commodities, including strawberry and grapes, and others under development for apples. The effectiveness of a strain of Trichoderma against several turfgrass diseases on golf course greens is also discussed.
Bioblast is a formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae for termite control. BioPath uses this fungus in bait stations for control of cockroaches, although this product is no longer being manufactured. Another formulation of this fungus is available in South America for control of other insect pests.
A number of products are now available for use against insects in greenhouses. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is being marketed in the U.S. by the W. R. Grace subsidary, Thermo Trilogy Corporation for control of whiteflies, although Mycotech also has a formulation under development. Two companies are developing and marketing several formulations of the fungus Beauveria bassiana for greenhouse and field use.
There are a number of virus formulations for caterpillars, but some are only available in foreign countries. A codling moth granulosis virus (GV) and a leafroller GV are sold in Europe, while a codling moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is sold in Central and South American markets. Biosys manufactures Heliothis zea NPV (Gemstar) and a beet armyworm NPV (Spod-X). It has also registered a codling moth GV, a celery looper NPV, and an alfalfa looper NPV, although these are not currently available.
Microbials for weed control are also discussed. Although several products have been developed and marketed, they are sold on an on-going basis only if the company is making a profit. Sicklepod weed, northern jointvetch weed, mallow weed, hemp sesbania, and stranglervine are some of the targets.
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